Here is some basic chemestry vocabulary. I've come across some of these words in the past, so I hope they'll be useful to you to!
素 is a common kanji in element names. According to RTK, this is elementary. Usually, it comes with another kanji before, and you can remember the meaning by thinking elemental brick. By the way, a chemical element is 元素 (げんそ). Here are all the elements that have a kanji writing. Others are written in kana and come from English or Latin.
Hydrogen is the elemental brick of water.
Carbon is the elemental brick of charcoal.
Oxygen is the elemental brick of acid/rust.
Note that it's usually written in kana only.
硫 is for sulfur and is usually used alone in compounds. Pronounce it りゅう in compounds. 黄 is yellow, the color of sulfur.
Chlorine is the elemental brick of salt (true, with sodium, ナトリウム (Na)).
砒 is usually used alone in compounds.
Bromine is the element that stinks (really).
Usually written in kana.
The white gold, often written プラチナ.
Gold is more precious than silver, don't mix it with dakuten like you did with silver
The water silver. In English, it used to be called quicksilver, so makes sense.